Dissertation​ Proposal

Report on Dissertation​ Proposal

Introduction

Transport for London is the local government agency which is responsible for transport system in Greater London, England. TfL has responsible for London network of principal road routes where different rail networks includes London Underground. Transport for London was established in the year of 2000 as the integrated body which is responsible for London’s transport system. The main role of TfL is to implement effective transport strategy and manage transport services along with capital. The main motive of this investigation is to analyse the impact of public Transport prices on students of London. They are offer special discounts to the London students where they travel on free charge and make it great option for students. Along with this, the main purpose of the research is to analyse different authors and scholars views regarding specific topic. Moreover, research methodology assist in identify best method which is qualitative research design and this will be conducted with the help of interviews by London students who uses public transport on regular basis. It will help in analysing reviews and views of students regarding fare of transportation modes

Ethical consideration

The ethical consideration has common undertaken for an association in examining and exploring various areas. In addition to this, it can be analysed that various rules and regulations are identified in term of right or wrong in proper manner. It can be estimated that it is required part which can be used for securing and saving various criteria on experts and specialists. They have develop accurate decisions in order to select right or wrong and it is also conceal with individual facts and figures from various respondents. There are different types of moral qualities that are required for examiners in order to sort particular research work.

Data collection

Data can be categorised by various methods and strategies which can be used for gathering and collecting correct information in better manner. There are two ways through which company can easily sort information in order to gather method which combine essential and subsidiary sources which are mentioned as under: Primary data – It is that method which can be useful in social occasion and also collect exact data and information in better manner. There are different methods which can help in collecting and gathering accurate statistical data points among various sources such as observations, interviews, recognition, contemplate and many more. Such type of method assist in assembling and collecting right data at the time of completing specific project. Secondary data – It can be categorised as the process which assist social affair data and information by another individual and it is that information that can be used for analysing valid conclusion for such examination and survey. Theme 1: Concept of Transport for London

Q 1) Are you aware with the concept of Transport for London?

Frequency

a) Yes

25

b) No

5

Interpretation: It can be analysed that Transport for London is the local government body which is responsible for transporting system and they are manage and maintain services of company. This is required for government is to offer special discounts and free charges to their students in the nation. There are around 25 respondents who are agree on that Transport for London is responsible for maintaining transportation prices which are flexible in nature. On the other hand, there are around 5 respondents who are disagree on that statement where they does not provide flexible prices as per their students requirements. Theme 2: Importance of Transport for London for students

Q 2) What is the importance of Transport for London for students? Frequency
a) Provides low fares to students 20
b) Ease in accessibility 10

Interpretation: As per the above described table, it can be analysed that Trabsport for London is essential Theme 3: Transport for London helps in making travelling easier for students

Q 3) Does Transport for London helps in making travelling easier for students? Frequency
a) Agree 28
b) Disagree 2

Interpretation: It can be analysed that Transport for London assist in developing and making travelling easier for students where they are made special card through which they can easily travel by different transport. It is required for TfL is to Theme 4: Transport for London focuses on reducing pollution to become sustainable in London

Q 4) Does Transport for London focuses on reducing pollution to become sustainable in London? Frequency
a) Yes 27
b) No 3

Interpretation: Due to increase in industrialisation, pollution has become one of the main issues which impact negatively on ecosystem. For reducing this issue, Transport for London is majorly focused on transportation services. It always concerns on bringing sustainability and prevent environment from such pollutions, which causes due to transportation. As per above mentioned graph, where a survey is done on 30 respondents, it has interpreted that 27 users are in favour with this corporation. They are agreed that this cooperation give its efforts in reducing pollutions. While other than this, 3 respondents do not go with same statement. They state that this firm needs to develop more strategies for bringing sustainability in London. Theme 5: Fund for Transport for London

Q 5) Who provides the fund for Transport for London? Frequency
a) Fares income 15
b) Borrowing and cash movements 10
c) funds from Department for Transport (DfT) 5

Interpretation: In order to run program for reducing pollution and bring sustainability in society, the basic resources needed by Transport for London is adequate amount of funds. As without arranging proper amount of finance, it cannot runs its major operations in more effective manner. For this purpose, it can take funds from Department for Transport, Borrow and cash movement, Fares income etc. Through survey, it has interpreted from above graph that 15 respondents suggest this firm to arrange finance by Fares income. Whereas 10 users bring attention towards borrowing and cash movement. They think by lending money from commercial institution, Transport for London can satisfy its requirements related to finance. While, remaining 5 users thinks that funds from Department for Transport will help this firm to get rid from financial issues.

In 2015, recoverable amount is higher than carrying figure so there is no journal entry has been made.

C. Explaining the reasons for impairment

In 2014, carrying amount is $200000, whereas recoverable amount implies for $110000. Hence, carrying amount is higher than recoverable cost which shows the loss of $90000. Carrying cost – recoverable amount $200000 – $110000 = $90000

D. Presenting the amount of plant and equipment in balance sheet

In balance sheet, revaluate amount of plant and equipment is recorded by business entity after doing final reversal.

QUESTION 3

Interpreting the technical requirements and importance of international accounting standards

International Accounting standards have high level of importance which ensures high level transparency and standardization in the financial statements. Hence, final accounts which are prepared according to IFRS are highly reliable in nature and thereby helps stakeholders in making decisions (Florou, Kosi and Pope, 2017). However, technical knowledge is highly required among the individuals or accounting personnel to deal with the aspects of International Accounting Standards such as IAS 12 and 26 etc. In this, accounting personnel must have ability to recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities. Moreover, assets, revenue received in advance, other liabilities, unrecognized items; consolidated financial statements are the main bases of taxation (Warren, 2016). By taking into consideration all such bases accounting personnel can assess or determine the tax liability. In addition to this, in IAS 12 contains rules regarding the measurement of deferred tax. Along with this, tax rate are also varied from one year to another. In this, accounting personnel is required to update with changing rules and policies. Through this, finance manager and accounting personnel would become able to determine suitable tax liability. In addition to this, IAS 26 serves information about retirement plans which can be distinguished into two types such as defined benefit and contribution plan. Hence, it clearly presents information about the recording, measurement and disclosure of information regarding the retirement benefit plans. Hence, for effective presentation accounting personnel must have knowledge regarding the rules and regulations which are related to it (Bond, Govendir and Wells, 2016). Thus, by considering all such aspects it can be said that technical and conceptual knowledge is highly required for dealing with the standards more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, reporting and measurement aspect of pension plan is highly differing from one standard to another (McPhail, Macdonald and Ferguson, 2016). For instance: UK GAAP has different rules in relation to treatment on pension benefits in against to IAS. Hence, conceptual understanding and knowledge is highly required for dealing with the amount of retirement benefits and deferred tax amount. There are several key issues which are associated with financial reporting enumerated below:

  • Reporting needs and requirements are mentioned in the regulations which business entity requires following for ensuring transparency in the final accounts. However, sometimes is not possible for the business organization to comply with all the rules to the large extent.
  • Further, some government authorities have framed and introduced legislation which entail that companies are not obliged to prepare financial statements according to accounting standards. Moreover, sometimes treasurer directives also enforce accounting standard which company has to follow for the preparation of financial statements.

References

  • Bond, D., Govendir, B. and Wells, P., 2016. An evaluation of asset impairments by Australian firms and whether they were impacted by AASB 136.Accounting & Finance.
  • Florou, A., Kosi, U. and Pope, P.F., 2017. Are international accounting standards more credit relevant than domestic standards?.Accounting and Business Research.47(1). pp.1-29.
  • McPhail, K., Macdonald, K. and Ferguson, J., 2016. Should the international accounting standards board have responsibility for human rights?.Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal.29(4). pp.594-616.
  • Warren, C. M., 2016. The impact of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)/International Financial Reporting Standard 16 (IFRS 16).Property Management.34(3).